IJERI: International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI <div>International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation (IJERI) is an international scientific journal that aims to promote reflection and multidisciplinary research on Educational Innovation and Research. It arises from an International teaching group called Innovagogía®: <a href="http://innovagogia.jimdo.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=http://innovagogia.jimdo.com/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1607246762106000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHb-Uw8sWmtiH3G40SHzBampOT8yQ">http://innovagogia.jimdo.com/</a><br /><br />All published articles are subject to a rigorous peer review process. Its Editorial and Scientific Councils are made up of teachers from different countries of the world.</div> <div> </div> en-US elopmen@upo.es (Eloy López Meneses, PhD.) elopmen@upo.es (Eloy López Meneses, PhD.) Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 An Evaluation of Fear of COVID-19 Scale in Professional Filipino Teachers. https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6181 <p style="margin: 0cm;"><span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;">The global Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis has enormously induced psychological impacts on humans like fear. Considering this particular concern, there is a need to test instruments used to measure such psychological impact. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19) Scale originally developed by Ahorsu et al. (2020). A sample of 1,060 K to 12 professional teachers from Mindanao, Philippines were selected to participate in the online survey. The preliminary analysis showed a high level of perceived fear of COVID-19 in the respondents of this study. The results of the series of tests are encouraging as the FCV-19 Scale generated a robust construct validity for both one- and two- factor structure models and a very high internal consistency complemented by strong inter-item correlations and item-total correlations. The results further supported the concurrent validity of the FCV-19 Scale with selected COVID-19-related characteristics significantly predicting fear of COVID-19. Overall, this paper provides an assessment of the fear of COVID-19 in a sample of professional teachers and the properties of the FCV-19 Scale in a particular context. The FCV-19 Scale, a seven-item scale, is a valid and reliable measure that can be used to assess the fear of COVID-19 of Filipino teachers.</span></p> Michael Cahapay, Jeorge Louie D. Anoba, Romina M. Amador, Kenneth B. Garcia, Erwin E. Rotas, Thalia R. Carreon Copyright (c) 2022 Michael Cahapay, Jeorge Louie D. Anoba, Romina M. Amador, Kenneth B. Garcia, Erwin E. Rotas, Thalia R. Carreon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6181 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 E -learning in times of COVID-19. What have we learned? https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6361 <p>The crisis caused by COVID-19 has had a great impact on society in general and educational systems in particular. In this context, numerous studies carried out before and during the pandemic show the importance of technologies as the main guarantor tools of distance teaching and learning processes. However, there are still numerous gaps to overcome for these processes to be 100% effective. Therefore, this study tries to present an informed and critical judgment of the main variables that have affected the success or failure of virtual educational practices. In this sense, a review of the latest research and educational reports is carried out before and during the pandemic. As a result, the results are presented in three large blocks: initial questions to take into account, digital gaps and contributions for the future. It concludes by making a summary of the main facilitating factors of e-learning (politics, teachers, students, family ...) and deliberates on the training need of all the groups involved.</p> Julio Cabero-Almenara, Rubicelia Valencia-Ortiz, Antonio Palacios-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2022 Julio Cabero-Almenara, Rubicelia Valencia-Ortiz, Antonio Palacios-Rodríguez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6361 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Educational games in the high school: implicate future teachers in the pursuit for new teaching strategies. https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4574 <p>This research was carried out as a teaching strategy in the Supervised Practices II of the Degree in Biological Sciences of the State University of Bahia, in Brazil. It was developed in a secondary school, with the aim of improving the initial education of future teachers, based on action research. From the experiences experienced by a trainee student, a proposal for activities based on active learning methodologies was built as a tool to improve the learning in genetics content of high school students. The research has a qualitative approach and was carried out through pre and pos-test applied with open questions and multiple-choice questions, as well as workshops with educational games. The main result is an increase in the rate of correct answers to the questions asked by students, as well as a better construction of concepts in relation to Mendel's 1st Law, after the application of methodological strategies and a greater approximation of the degree of the investigative-reflexive dimension.</p> Luana Rocha da Silva Santos, María José Souza-Pinho, Mariana Santos de Jesus, Amanda Kalil Copyright (c) 2022 Luana Rocha da Silva Santos, María José Souza-Pinho, Mariana Santos de Jesus, Amanda Kalil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4574 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of training for IoT technology awareness program In the Saudi Arabian Universities https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4914 <p>Nowadays, Internet of Things (IoT) has been making drastic changes in e-learning &amp; other fields of our daily lives such as the sectors like healthcare, agriculture, transportation, business &amp; trade and various engineering services. It is predicted that fifty billion IoT devices and six billion mobile devices will be on this earth in 2020 itself. Industries around the world are planning for implementing IoT as it reduces the expenses on energy by fifty percent and eventually increases profit. Therefore, academic institutions must also work on IoT enabled services to compete at the global level. IoT devices are connecting people to the web thus everyone comes closer to each other. Job sector would become more competitive from now on as many people opt for e-learning to obtain easily affordable degrees and required skills while continuing their professional commitments.</p> <p>This research attempts as preliminary step to assess the basic training of IoT to students in order to enhance their motivation to use IoT based equipment which is the prime requirement for an IoT enabled campus. T-test had been conducted to calculate the effectiveness of training as the universities in Saudi Arabia are seeking to launch IoT programs in their various departments, are motivated as well for trainings to prepare their teaching staff and students for IoT based courses.</p> Mogbel Aid K Alenizi Copyright (c) 2022 Mogbel Aid K Alenizi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4914 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Citizenship, heritage and inclusive education: construction of a category system for the analysis of didactic experiences https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6511 <p>From a flexible approach, it is presented an article with the objective of building a category system for the analysis of didactic experiences in relation to citizenship education, heritage education and inclusive education. According to defined objective and after the references were reviewed, a system of categories was designed in relation to the three aforementioned categories, including models of citizenship and civic participation, types of heritage, purposes of heritage education, perspectives of attention to diversity and principles for an inclusive heritage. As a conclusion, regarding the development of citizenship, there are main trends in experiences and researches such as the autonomy of the individual, social inclusion and rights; including citizens' rights, ability to decide, knowledge and implementation of these rights, and social inclusion in the environment where they are developed as fundamental topics. In this process, the use of heritage as a source of social identity respectful of other cultures, individuals and societies faces a double challenge: become aware of the little value that students can attribute to heritage if they do not establish some connection with their lives and counteract the use of heritage as a resource as differentiated and disintegrating elements<strong>. </strong>This article was elaborated within the framework of EPITEC 2 research project, “Controversial heritages for the ecosocial formation of citizenship. An investigation of heritage education in formal education” (PID2020-116662GB-I00), funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation of the Government of Spain.</p> Emilio José Delgado-Algarra, José Antonio Vela-Romero, Eloy López-Meneses, César Bernal-Bravo Copyright (c) 2022 Emilio José Delgado-Algarra, José Antonio Vela-Romero, Eloy López-Meneses, César Bernal-Bravo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6511 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the argumentation ability of pre-service teachers. Case study concerning the chemical dissolution process https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4968 <p>The scientific argumentation ability of pre-service teachers (PSTs) in the early stages of education is essential as they will provide students with their initial grounding in the scientific knowledge. A total of 133 pre-service Early Childhood (PSEC) and Primary (PSP) School teachers undertook an argumentation activity concerning how the dissolution process takes place. The design of this activity is as a clear example of the different levels of complexity of the argumentation ability in science. The results show that PSTs consolidated the categories identification of evidence and construction of warrant. However, the abilities to provide a counter-critique and construct a comparative argument are still not consolidated. The Mann-Whitney U test did not show any significant differences between groups with high levels of difficulty. In contrast, we found statistically significant differences for the identification of evidence in favour of PSPs.</p> Daniel Cebrián-Robles, José Hierrezuelo Osorio, Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal , Isabel María Cruz Lorite Copyright (c) 2022 Daniel Cebrián-Robles, José Hierrezuelo Osorio, Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal , Isabel María Cruz Lorite https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4968 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Difficulties and challenges for admission to the position of schools inspector in Spain and early career development https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6440 <p>This article presents research that analyzed the most significant needs, difficulties and problems for admission into Spain’s school inspectorates, the expectations of new inspectors and the challenges they face in their assessment of different school settings in the Spanish educational system. Firstly, the research addressed the central questions of school inspection and supervision in the European Union, then a methodology was applied&nbsp;based on virtual ethnography and the reticular-categorical approach to network analysis, with matrix representations and social graphs devised using UCINET and yED Graph Editor visor. This methodological approach was used to analyze the opinions of 140 students between 2017 and 2019 enrolled on the only Masters course in Spain dedicated to schools inspection and supervision, delivered by UNED (Spain’s National Distance Education University). Their open responses to a questionnaire, and course forum interaction, were analyzed from the Social Network Analysis perspective. The results show that the main difficulties, challenges and needs coalesced around four central nodes: the politicization of tribunals and the entrance exam format, the lack of training courses for potential inspectors, the absence of a national study pathway for potential inspectors as an entry requirement, and the need for training in supervision techniques to perform their functions as inspectors.</p> Esteban Vázquez-Cano, Blas Campos Barrionuevo Copyright (c) 2022 Esteban Vázquez-Cano, Blas Campos Barrionuevo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6440 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Differential effects of socio-economic status and family environment of adolescents on their emotional intelligence, academic stress and academic achievement https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/5148 <p>In this paper the researcher has presented the results of a study conducted to find out whether adolescents belonging to different levels of Socio-economic status and Family Environment differ in their Emotional Intelligence, Academic Stress and Academic Achievement. &nbsp;The study was conducted on a sample of 858 adolescents studying in various secondary schools of Aligarh district in Uttar Pradesh State, India. Standardized scales were employed for data collection. Multiple Analysis of variance technique (MANOVA) was applied to observe the effect. The homogeneity of the covariance matrices was verified using the Box’s M value. Results revealed that Socio-economic Status (SES) and Family Environment have significant effect on all the said variables. Post hoc analysis (Tukey HSD Test) findings revealed that differences exist with regard to Emotional Intelligence, Academic Stress and Academic Achievement among adolescent groups with different levels of Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment.</p> Razia B Naushad Copyright (c) 2022 RAZIA B Naushad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/5148 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Changes in the organization of the educational process during the Covid-19 pandemic period: analysis of pre-school teachers' experiences https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6475 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on education and teaching systems. It has fundamentally changed the way we learn, teach, communicate and collaborate within and between our education and teaching communities. This has affected learners, their families, teachers, heads of institutions, as well as the wider community. The purpose of this study is to analyse the pre-school teachers' experiences about changes in the organization of the educational process during the covid-19 pandemic period (in Lithuania). The strategy of qualitative research was chosen for the study, 15 Klaipėda city pre-school education teachers were interviewed. The study revealed that teachers did not change the content of education programs, sought to maintain the continuity of education and develop all the competencies of preschool children. Participants of the educational process experienced a variety of emotions and disturbances. Teachers missed for more decisive action of the institution’s administration. Many teachers note that it was difficult to manage time and organize activities for children. The opinion of educators discovered during the research helped to highlight advantages and disadvantages of distance pre-school education. Although the participants of the education process experienced difficulties, distance education enabled teachers to develop subject competencies and improve their ability to use ICT in the educational process.</p> Rasa Braslauskienė, Reda Jacynė, Aida Norvilienė, Sada Ramanauskienė, Neringa Strazdienė Copyright (c) 2022 Rasa Braslauskienė, Reda Jacynė, Aida Norvilienė, Sada Ramanauskienė, Neringa Strazdienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6475 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Training of university teachers in ICT and disability. The case of the University of Seville https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6168 <p>The presence of students with special educational needs in Spanish universities has increased considerably in recent decades, making it necessary to train teaching staff in certain areas. The main objective of the study is to find out the perceptions of those responsible for technology and training in university higher education centres in Seville city and province, more specifically, on the knowledge of university teaching staff in relation to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), as a support for students with disabilities. A qualitative methodology was used, with semi-structured interviews as the main instrument for collecting information. The study sample consisted of a total of 10 experts in the field of disability and technology. In terms of the conclusions of the present study, the lack of awareness of the subject and the lack of time available to teachers are notable. As for the main barriers, there is also a lack of technological training available to them when it comes to applying ICT as a support for students with disabilities.</p> Pedro Román-Graván, José Fernández-Cerero Copyright (c) 2022 Pedro Román-Graván, José Fernández-Cerero https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6168 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions of university students about virtual reality as a didactic resource: a pre-experimental study with a control and experimental group https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/5904 <p>This article presents the results of a study of the impact of incorporating Second Life on the didactics of a university degree subject as well as on student satisfaction, administering a survey to two groups of students enrolled in the same subject through a 24-item questionnaire scored on a 5-point Likert scale for data collection. Subjects comprised 75 students who used the traditional model and 75 students who used a virtual reality model. To verify the hypotheses, the data analysis focused on the descriptive statistics through a comparison of the mean scores for the dependent variables of each of the groups, and with the verification of parametric assumptions, statistical inference was applied to determine the significance of the variances through Student’s t-test. The results show that students perceive specific advantages linked to the design of VR activities in virtual reality. Hence, the potential of virtual reality for improving the teaching process is confirmed. This study leads to the conclusion that students at Universidad Don Bosco greatly value the teaching learning process mediated by virtual reality.</p> Eduardo Menjívar Valencia, Enrique Sánchez Rivas , Julio Ruiz Palmero, Francisco David Guillén Gámez Copyright (c) 2022 Eduardo, Enrique, Julio, Francisco https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/5904 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Lifelong Learning Competencies of Physical Education and Sports Teachers and Preservice Teachers in Turkey in Times of COVID-19 Pandemic https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6072 <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic, 76 physical education and sports teachers and 74 preservice teachers voluntarily participated in this study, which investigated the Lifelong Learning competencies of Physical Education and Sports Teachers and Physical Education and Sports Teaching Students. Data were collected with the Lifelong Learning Competence (LLC) scale. According to the results of the research, it was determined that the average scores of the participants from the LLC scale were high. There is a statistically significant difference in favor of physical education teachers between the LLC total score of teachers and students and the sub-dimensions of the scale. In terms of the age variable, a statistically significant difference was found between the LLC total score and the sub-dimensions of the scale in favor of the age of 34 and above. According to the results of the correlation analysis between age and LLC sub-dimensions, a positive relationship was found between age and total score, self-management, learning to learn, initiative and entrepreneurship, and a positive relationship between acquiring information and decision-making. Although it is difficult to make a causal inference because the current research was designed in a cross-sectional pattern, lifelong learning competence in the current research group increases with age in the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Kursat Hazar Copyright (c) 2022 Kursat Hazar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6072 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The computer devices and applications used by the teachers of the Ibarra Educational Unit. https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/5535 <p>This article assesses the use and benefits of computer tools by teachers of the Ibarra Educational Unit during the school year 2019-2020. In this mixed research work using a descriptive method, an online questionnaire was submitted to the population made of 71 women and 41 men. Based on the analysis, it is established that all of the teachers questioned have integrated technology in their daily activities. Their use of computer devices and applications differ though. It is observed in the survey that only 5.36% of teachers consider their proficiency of technology as advanced, while 20.54% consider their knowledge as sufficient. Operating system, basic internet, e-mail and office software are the most common applications used by teachers. In conclusion, it can be said that teachers have partially incorporated these tools in their pedagogical and administrative activities. However, deciders must absolutely support teachers training in order to improve their teaching skills and contribute to the quality assurance of education.</p> Jorge Iván Albuja León, Francisco Ignacio Revuelta Domínguez, Nhora Benítez Bastidas Copyright (c) 2022 Jorge Iván Albuja León, Francisco Ignacio Revuelta Domínguez, Nhora Benítez Bastidas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/5535 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Implementing kiva antibullying program in pioner schools in Spain https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6252 <p>This study analyzes the implementation of the KiVa Antibullyiing program in Spain with 10 pioneer schools.</p> <p>This research has two aims. The first is a preliminary evaluation of the KiVa program’s implementation in the pioneer schools in Spain. To do so, the perceived levels of bullying and victimization have been analyzed through the surveys done anonymously by the students of 10 KiVa schools before and after the program’s implementation. The second is to identify the factors which explain the phenomenon with a view to knowing the background of the victims and the bullies and proposing courses of action. To do so, the school environment (atmosphere in the classroom and in the school), the perception of the students concerning teachers and parents in relation with the phenomenon (attitude, capacity and behavior) and the communication of the victims were analyzed in their environment in the case of bullying. In the empirical study, analyses were performed of the prevalence of bullying before and after the first year of program’s implementation, as well as an analysis of independence and multiple correspondences. This enables identifying the key variables and drawing conclusions about how the children surveyed live out school bullying in the pioneer Spanish KiVa schools, and what aspects should guide other schools interested in preventing bullying.</p> Blanca López-Catalán, Tiina Mäkela, Francisca Sánchez Sánchez, Luis López-Catálan Copyright (c) 2022 Blanca López Catalán, Tiina Mäkela, Francisca Sánchez Sánchez, Luis López Catálan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6252 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Perception of the students of Pedagogy of the University of Granada on the attitudes of promotion of creativity in the classroom: evaluative study https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4508 <p>We present a scientific study carried out by the University of Granada, whose general interest lies in knowing the perceptions of future educators about the attitudes that are developed in the university classroom for the promotion of creativity in the student body. For this purpose, and after authorization by the coordination of the degree, a descriptive and non - experimental research was designed, focusing mainly on the application of the standardized survey technique on a sample of 244 (N = 558) subjects officially enrolled in the four courses that integrate the degree of Pedagogy at the University of Granada (Spain) during the academic year 2017 / 18, and thanks to which, it has been proven with absolute vigor that the students of Educational Sciences positively value behaviors and novel class initiatives that promote creativity as a competence to develop, although their participation in them is rather low.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Francisco Raso Sánchez, David Santana Aranda Copyright (c) 2022 FRANCISCO RASO SANCHEZ, DAVID SANTANA ARANDA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4508 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Use of network technologies in the professional activities of adult education teachers in Ukraine https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6380 <p>The use of network technologies is fundamental to all professional activities in the field of education in the society of the 21st century. The field of adult education has also been influenced by this trend and network technologies have been acknowledged as basic tools for the improvement of learning opportunities and for the development of the teaching-learning activities themselves. Hence, this paper aims to know about the use of network technologies in professional activities of teachers in the field of adult education in four Ukrainian pedagogical institutions. For this purpose, a questionnaire was passed on about the use of network technologies in the professional activities of teachers in these institutions. Among the main results, it is worth noting that the use of network technologies is relevant in the professional activity of teachers regardless of their age, as well as the widespread use of the computer and the Windows operating system for professional activity. Among the Microsoft applications, Word stands out, used by the entire sample, followed by Power Point and Excel, both of which received more than two thirds of the responses. Google Drive stands out for cloud storage, Viber and Facebook Messenger predominate in messaging services and gmail.com and ukr.net are mostly used for email services, the latter being a specific Ukrainian email service. In conclusion, it is suggested that teachers be trained in a wider range of network technologies to improve their professional activity.</p> Leila Sultanova, María R. Belando-Montoro Copyright (c) 2022 Leila Sultanova, María R. Belando-Montoro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/6380 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ Attitude towards Biology in Secondary Schools in Islamabad, Pakistan https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4711 <p>In this age of science and technology, the world is facing geographical challenges, whereas<br />the future nation builders are losing their interest even in science subjects, especially, in<br />biology. There are numerous factors that contributed towards students’ success in a particular<br />subject but the most important one is their attitude towards that subject. The focus of the<br />present study was to investigate the attitude of students towards Biology in Secondary<br />Schools in Islamabad. The population of this study comprised all 10th grade Biology students<br />in different institutions in Islamabad. Owing to the shortage of time, the researcher selected<br />506 students (from six public and four private schools) as a convenience sample for this study.<br />These students were administered through a valid and reliable instrument known as “Biology<br />Attitude Scale” (BAS) developed by the researcher. The study used a 5-point Likert type scale<br />to measure students’ attitude towards Biology on seven dimensions: “Interest in Biology”,<br />“Career in Biology”, “Importance of Biology”, “Biology Teacher”, “Difficulty in Biology”,<br />“Equipment use in Biology” and “Methodology of Biology”. Students’ attitude toward Biology<br />was analyzed by using the mean score of an individual statement. The findings of the study<br />revealed that overall students showed a positive attitude towards Biology. Female students<br />exhibited a positive attitude as compared to male students. Similarly, students in public<br />schools showed a positive attitude toward students of private schools.</p> Shahzad Ahmad, Naveed Sultana, Sadia Jamil Copyright (c) 2022 Shahzad Ahmad, Naveed Sultana, Sadia Jamil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/IJERI/article/view/4711 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000