Midiendo la centralidad de los países y la integración comercial desde una perspectiva de red // Measuring Countries Centrality and the Trade Integration Using a Network Approach

Autores/as

  • Wilson Pérez-Oviedo Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales FLACSO-sede Ecuador
  • John Cajas-Guijarro Universidad Central del Ecuador, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Ecuador) http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5753-0315

Palabras clave:

centralidad, mapas de estructura de comercio, heterogeneidad, cohesión, balance de comercio intra-industrial, centrality, trade structure maps, heterogeneity, cohesion, intra-industry trade balance

Resumen

Al revisar los estudios del comercio internacional desde un enfoque de redes, encontramos una falta de contenido económico en los indicadores utilizados. Ante tal carencia, el presente artículo propone una alternativa metodológica para describir al comercio como red, pero enfatizando el sentido económico. Dicha metodología propone: estimar la centralidad de los países en el comercio brindando resultados económicamente interpretables; construir redes y mapas de estructura de comercio como alternativa visual a las redes de comercio convencionales; y estimar indicadores para evaluar la fortaleza de la integración comercial de grupos de países. Al aplicar tal metodología a información de 145 países entre 1992 y 2015, se logra: identificar los posibles países más influyentes en el comercio mundial; identificar potenciales estructuras centro-periféricas regionales; mostrar que la centralidad se distribuye de forma heterogénea, pero siempre concentrándose en pocos países; e identificar grupos de mayor y menor fortaleza en su integración comercial. Todos los resultados parecen describir adecuadamente la complejidad económica del comercio, mostrando que la metodología propuesta sería válida para brindar un sentido económico al comercio internacional visto como red.

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Most papers which study the world trade network use indicators that suffer from an absence of economic content. Understanding this problem, we propose an alternative methodology to describe the international trade using a network perspective, but recovering the economic interpretation. The proposal consists in: estimating countries' centrality using indicators with economic interpretation; building trade structure networks and maps as alternatives to conventional visualizations; and estimating indicators to evaluate the strength of trade integration. We apply the methodology to information for 145 countries from 1992 to 2015, finding that our indicators identify the potentially most influential countries on international trade, possible core-periphery structures, a heterogeneous centrality distribution (always concentrated in few countries), and groups of different strength on its trade integration. All the results seem adequate in its description of trade economic-complexity, suggesting that the proposed methodology would be a valid tool to bring some economic sense to the international trade studied from a network perspective.

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Publicado

2019-02-06

Cómo citar

Pérez-Oviedo, W., & Cajas-Guijarro, J. (2019). Midiendo la centralidad de los países y la integración comercial desde una perspectiva de red // Measuring Countries Centrality and the Trade Integration Using a Network Approach. Revista De Métodos Cuantitativos Para La Economía Y La Empresa, 26, Páginas 146 a 174. Recuperado a partir de https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/RevMetCuant/article/view/2791

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