Análisis en componentes principales de los estados financieros. Un enfoque composicional

Autores/as

Palabras clave:

ratio financiera, análisis de datos composicionales (CoDa), biplot, sector de distribución alimentaria, visualización de datos.

Resumen

Las ratios financieras se utilizan a menudo en el análisis en componentes principales y técnicas relacionadas con el fin de reducir y visualizar los datos. Además de la dependencia de los resultados de la elección de las ratios, las ratios en sí plantean una serie de problemas cuando se someten a un análisis de componentes principales, por ejemplo, distribuciones asimétricas. En este trabajo, presentamos un método alternativo que proviene del análisis de datos composicionales (CoDa), una caja de herramientas estadística estándar para usar cuando los datos contienen información sobre magnitudes relativas, como lo hacen las ratios financieras. El método, conocido como el biplot CoDa, no se basa en una elección particular de ratios financieras, sino que permite a los investigadores ordenar visualmente las empresas a lo largo de las ratios financieras entre cualesquiera pares de cuentas. Las magnitudes no financieras y la evolución temporal se pueden agregar a la visualización como se desee. Mostramos un ejemplo de su aplicación a las principales cadenas de supermercados españolas y mostramos cómo la técnica puede utilizarse para describir las diferencias de gestión estratégica en la estructura o el rendimiento financieros, y su evolución en el tiempo.

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Publicado

2020-01-23

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Carreras Simó, M., & Coenders, G. (2020). Análisis en componentes principales de los estados financieros. Un enfoque composicional. Revista De Métodos Cuantitativos Para La Economía Y La Empresa, 29, 18-37. Recuperado a partir de https://www.upo.es/revistas/index.php/RevMetCuant/article/view/3580

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