Online Education amid COVID-19 Crisis

Issues and Challenges at Higher Education Level in Pakistan


  • Sumra Kalsoom B. COMSATS University
  • Muhammad Mumtaz Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi
  • Nasra Dahir Mohamed Riphah Institute of Public Policy
  • Abdul Haseeb University of Haripur
  • Sarfaraz Hussain Ansari National Defence University Islamabad



online education, COVID-19, higher education, digital divide, technology


The objective of this study is to examine the main constraints experienced in the online mode of education during this pandemic at higher education level in Pakistan. The COVID-19 pandemic credibly transformed the method of learning and teaching from face to face to online.  In unexpected sudden septicity, universities in Pakistan have started online education without proper instructional provision and relevant experience. For this purpose, the data is collected from 750 students and teachers across all over the regions in Pakistan. The study has used partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings show that technological bottlenecks, institutional preparedness, and digital divide are significant challenges. The differences in perceptions of rural and urban areas are also very important referring to several policies implications, implementing information communication technology (ICT), friendly curriculums, enhancing online accessibility and infrastructure development. This study contributes to help universities for developing effective e-learning policies for students in the situation of COVID-19. 



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How to Cite

Kalsoom B. , S., Mumtaz, M., Dahir Mohamed, N. ., Haseeb, A., & Ansari, S. H. . (2022). Online Education amid COVID-19 Crisis: Issues and Challenges at Higher Education Level in Pakistan. IJERI: International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation, (18), 240–259.