Development and validation of a scale to assess the frequency of using classroom assessment tools and methods for mathematics teachers




Mathematics teacher, Classroom assessment, Assessment tools and methods, Scale development


The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to assess the frequency of using classroom assessment tools and methods for mathematics teachers. This study was conducted on 320 Turkish mathematics teachers. The data were analysed using the SPSS 17.0 and LISREL 8.8 statistical software packages. EFA and CFA, item-total correlations, and convergent and discriminant validities were used to assess the construct validity. EFA and item analysis were performed with 170 mathematics teachers. After EFA, a four-factor scale with 25 items was identified, explaining 52.38% of the variance. The CFA was carried out with 150 mathematics teachers. The first and second-order CFA results indicated that the scale model had good fit indices, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was confirmed. The Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability (CR) coefficients were satisfactory. The results of this study showed that the scale is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the frequency of mathematics teachers’ use of classroom assessment tools and methods.


Download data is not yet available.


Acar-Erdol, T., & Yıldızlı, H. (2018). Classroom assessment practices of teachers in Turkey. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 587-602.

Adams, E. L., & Hsu, J. Y. (1998). Classroom assessment: Teachers’ conceptions and practices in mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 98(4), 174-180.

Andersson, C., & Palm, T. (2017). The impact of formative assessment on student achievement: A study of the effects of changes to classroom practice after a comprehensive professional development programme. Learning and Instruction, 49, 92-102.

Aras, E. (2020). An examination of secondary school mathematics teachers' approaches, perception of proficiency and their frequency of use about alternative assessment tools and methods (Unpublished Master's thesis). Usak University.

Arnold, J. (2022). Prioritising students in Assessment for Learning: A scoping review of research on students' classroom experience. Review of Education, 10(3), e3366.

Assessment Reform Group (1999). Assessment for learning: Beyond the black box. Cambridge, England: University of Cambridge.

Baas, D., Vermeulen, M., Castelijns, J. Martens, R. & Segers, M. (2020) Portfolios as a tool for AfL and student motivation: are they related? Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 27 (4), 444-462.

Birgin, O. (2010). Teachers’ implementation level of assessment and evaluation approaches suggested by 4-5th grade mathematics curricula (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Karadeniz Technical University.

Birgin, O., & Baki, A. (2009). An investigation of primary school teachers’ proficiency perceptions about measurement and assessment methods: The case of Turkey. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 681-685.

Birgin, O., & Baki, A. (2012). Investigation of the purposes of the measurement and assessment practice of primary school teachers within the context of the new mathematics curriculum. Education and Science, 5(1), 7-74.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2018). Classroom assessment and pedagogy. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(6), 551-575.

Black, P., & Willam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7-74.

Bol, L., Stephenson, P. L., O'connell, A. A., & Nunnery, J. A. (1998). Influence of experience, grade level, and subject area on teachers' assessment practices. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(6), 323-330.

Büyüktokatlı, N., & Bayraktar, Ş. (2014). Alternative assessment practices in science. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 4(1), 103-126.

Çalışkan, H., & Kaşıkçı, Y. (2010). The application of traditional and alternative assessment and evaluation tools by teachers in social studies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 4152-4156.

Cheng, L., & Sun, Y. (2015). Teachers’ grading decision making: multiple influencing factors and methods. Language Assessment Quarterly, 12, 213-233.

Cizek, G. J., Fitzgerald, S. M., & Rachor, R. A. (1995). Teachers’ assessment practices: preparation, isolation, and the kitchen sink. Educational Assessment, 3(2), 159-179.

Clark, I. (2012). Formative assessment: Assessment is for self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 24(2), 205-249.

Çokluk, O., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları [Multivariate statistics SPSS and LISREL applications for social sciences] (2nd Edition). Ankara: Pegem Academy Publishing.

DeLuca, C., Chapman-Chin, A. E. A., Lapointe-Mcewan, D., & Klinger, D. A. (2018). Student perspectives on assessment for learning. The Curriculum Journal, 29(1), 77-94.

Duncan, C. R., & Noonan. B. (2007). Factors affecting teachers’ grading and assessment practices. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53(1), 1-21.

Duran, M., Mıhladız, G., & Ballıel, B. (2013). The competency level of elementary school teachers’ towards the alternative assessment methods. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of the Institute of Educational Sciences, 2(2), 26-37.

Earl, L. M. (2012). Assessment as learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistic using SPSS for Windows (2nd edition). London: Sage Publication.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fosnot, C. T. (1996). Constructivism: Theory, perspectives, and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Gelbal, S., & Kelecioğlu, H. (2007). Teachers’ proficiency perceptions of about the measurement and evaluation techniques and the problems they confront. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 33, 135-145.

Gök, B., & Şahin, A. E. (2009). The multiple uses of assessment methods in 4th and 5th grades and the competency levels of teachers. Education and Science, 34(153), 127-143. Retrieved from

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th Edition). New York: Pearson.

Heritage, M., & Wylie, C. (2018). Reaping the benefits of assessment for learning: Achievement, identity, and equity. ZDM Mathematics Education, 50 (4), 729-741.

Kingston, N., & Nash, B. (2011). Formative assessment: a meta-analysis and a call for research. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(4), 28-37.

Klenowski, V. (2009). Assessment for learning revisited: An Asia-Pacific perspective. Assessment in Education, 16(3), 263-268.

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th edition). New York: The Guilford Press.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212–218.

Kyaruzi, F., Strijbos, J. W., Ufer, S., & Brown, G. T. (2019). Students’ formative assessment perceptions, feedback use and mathematics performance in secondary schools in Tanzania. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 26(3), 278-302.

Lam, R. (2016). Assessment as learning: Examining a cycle of teaching, learning, and assessment of writing in the portfolio-based classroom. Studies in Higher Education, 41(11), 1900-1917.

McDowell, L., Wakelin, D., Montgomery, C., & King, S. (2011). Does assessment for learning make a difference? The development of a questionnaire to explore the student response. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(7), 749-765.

McMillan, J. H. (2001). Secondary teachers’ classroom assessment and grading practices. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20(1), 20-32.

McMillan, J. H. (2013). Classroom assessment: Principles and practice for effective standards-based instruction (6th edition). New York: Pearson.

McMillan, J. H., Myran, S., & Workman, D. (2002). Elementary teachers’ classroom assessment and grading practices. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(4), 203-213.

Ministry of National Education (MoNE) (2013). Ortaokul matematik dersi (5, 6, 7 ve 8. Sınıflar) öğretim Programı [Middle school mathematics curriculum (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades)]. Ankara: MoNE.

Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2014). Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı okul öncesi eğitim ve ilköğretim kurumları yönetmeliği [Ministry of National Education regulation on pre-school education and primary education institutions]. Ankara: MoNE.

Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2018). Matematik dersi öğretim programı (İlkokul ve ortaokul 1-8. Sınıflar) [Primary school mathematics curriculum (1st-8th grade)]. Ankara: MoNE.

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., & Hooper, M. (2016). 20 years of TIMSS international trends in mathematics and science achievement, curriculum, and instruction. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Cente, and IEA.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (2020). Standards for the Preparation of Secondary Mathematics Teachers. Reston, VA: Author.

Nazlıçiçek, N., & Akarsu, F. (2008). Physics, chemistry and mathematics teachers’ approaches to assessment tools and their assessment practices. Education and Science 33(149), 18-29.

Özenç, M., & Çakır, M. (2015). Exploring primary school teachers’ competencies of alternative assessment and evaluation. Elementary Education Online, 14(3), 914-933.

Peker, M., & Gülle, M. (2011). Mathematics teachers’ level of knowing about the measurement tools in new elementary school mathematics teaching program and their frequency of use. Elementary Education Online, 10(2), 703-716.

Randall, J., & Engelhard, G. (2010). Examining the grading practices of teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(7), 1372-1380.

Sadeghi, K., & Rahmati, T. (2017). Integrating assessment as, for, and of learning in a large-scale exam preparation course. Assessing Writing, 34, 50-61.

Schellekens, L. H., Bok, H. G., de Jong, L. H., van der Schaaf, M. F., Kremer, W. D., & van der Vleuten, C. P. (2021). A scoping review on the notions of Assessment as Learning (AaL), Assessment for Learning (AfL), and Assessment of Learning (AoL). Studies in Educational Evaluation, 71, 101094.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.

Shepard, L. A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 4-14.

Stiggins, R. J. (1997). Student-centered classroom assessment (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Sun, Y., & Cheng, L. (2014). Teachers’ grading practices: Meaning and values assigned. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 21(3), 326-343.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.

Wiliam, D. (2011). What is assessment for learning? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 37, 3-14.

Yazıcı, F., & Sözbilir, M. (2014). Elementary 6-8 grades teachers' frequency of use and their level of adequacy in assessment and evaluation methods: Erzurum sampling. Necatibey Faculty of Education, Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8(2), 164-197.

Yıldırım Ekinci, H., & Köksal, E. A. (2011). Development of elementary science and mathematıcs teachers' competence in measurement and evaluation scale. Kastamonu Education Journal, 19, 167-184. Retrieved from

Yıldızlı, H. (2020). Classroom assessment practices and student goal orientations in mathematics classes. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 8(1), 294-323.

Zhang, Z., & Burry-Stock, J. A. (2003). Classroom assessment practices and teachers' self-perceived assessment skills. Applied Measurement in Education, 16(4), 323-342.



How to Cite

Birgin, O., & Yılmaz, M. . (2023). Development and validation of a scale to assess the frequency of using classroom assessment tools and methods for mathematics teachers. IJERI: International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation, (20), 1–20.